Part One: Answer ONE of the following:
1. Discuss the Following aspects of the foundations of law and the court system: A. the definition of the law. B. law and justice: why they do not necessarily equate. C. Judicial self-restraint and judicial activism. D. courts and the law – the three concentric circles: core institutions, gatekeepers, users.
2. Discuss the following aspects of the organization of the judicial system: A. the differences between trial and appellate courts. B. the presumption of innocence in criminal court procedure. C. The organization of the federal courts.
3. Discuss the following aspects of judging: A. the work of a trial judge: umpiring a dispute, negotiating a settlement, drafting legal documents, counseling, administrating. B. why do judges so often defer to other courtroom participants.
4. Discuss the following aspects of judicial policy making: A. the two basic theories of the law: the internal theory and the social theory. B. Judicial review.
Part Two: Answer ONE of the following:
1. Discuss: A. the work of lawyers: litigating, representing/lobbying, negotiating, drafting documents, counseling clients.
B. how interest groups employ lawyers to litigate over public policy.
2. In regard to the courtroom setting in criminal cases discuss the following: A. police screening. B. the prosecutor. C. the exclusionary rule. D. the funneling effect. E. why case attrition occurs. F. the judicial wedding cake. G. the courtroom work group.
3. In regard to the courtroom setting in civil trials discuss the following: A. the disputing pyramid: grievances, claiming, disputing a claim, hiring a lawyer, filing a lawsuit. B. the significant role of the lawyer in civil cases: intermediaries, gatekeepers, framing the case, dealing with client’s unrealistic expectations, law talk.
4. Discuss the following aspects of judicial decision making: A. the two major factors that influence the decision making of a trial judge: rules and procedures of the legal system, political aspects of the legal environment. B. the four major theories that help explain appellate court decision making.
5. Discuss the following aspects of the Supreme Court: A. mobilizing the law to reach the Supreme Court. B. the doctrine of access. C. case selection.